AP Eugenics Movement
Athena Press      ††††† アメリカ・イギリス・フランスの文化研究資料復刻出版
 The Eugenics Movement

An International Perspective

Edited and with an introduction by Pauline M. H. Mazumdar, University of Toronto

優生学の国際的展開

全6巻

ISBN 978-4-902708-39-4  ・ c. 2000 pp.

定価 本体168,000円+税 品切れ  2007年

 

19世紀後半の欧米世界における、知の構造的変動の中から生まれ出た「優生学」について、その国際的な広がりを検証する資料集。 最新の研究動向を踏まえながら、世界の主要な地域での代表的な論説を精選、1980年代以降の強制断種に関わる報告書も含んでいます。

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Contents

Volume 1

Introduction
Part I: The 19th Century: Degeneration 
1. Max Nordau, Entartung (1892), excerpts from the English translation
2. Emile Zola, Germinal (1885), excerpts from the English translation
3. Cesare Lombroso, Crime: Its Causes and Remedies (1906), excerpts from the English translation.
4. Charles Wicksteed Armstrong, ‘Is Degeneration a Fact?’, in The Survival of the Unfittest (1927)
Part II: The 19th Century: Social Activism and Social Control
 
5. Margaret Fison, Handbook of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science (1859), excerpts.
6. Helen Dendy, ‘The Industrial Residuum’, Economic Journal 3 (1863).
7. Inter-Departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration, Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration [‘the FitzRoy Report’] (1904), excerpts.

Volume 2

Part III: The Animal Model: Pedigrees and Breeders
The Geneticists Explain Mendelism to the Breeders
8. W. E. Castle, ‘Some Biological Principles of Animal Breeding’, American Breeders Magazine 3 (1912).
9. Sewall Wright, ‘Mendelian Analysis of the Pure Breeds of Livestock: I. The Measurement of Inbreeding and Relationship’, Journal of Heredity 14 (1923).
10. Sewall Wright, ‘Mendelian Analysis of the Pure Breeds of Livestock: II. The Duchess Family of Shorthorns as Bred by Thomas Bates’, Journal of Heredity 14 (1923).
11. Harry H. Laughlin, ‘Racing Capacity in the Thoroughbred Horse: Part I. The Measure of Racing Capacity; Part II. The Inheritance of Racing Capacity’, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Supplementary Publications No. 7 (1934).
Animal Breeding and Racism
12. W. E. Castle, ‘Biological and Social Consequences of Race-crossing’, Journal of Heredity 15 (1924).
Part IV: Pauperism, Feeblemindedness and Differential Fertility: The Eugenics Education Society in Britain
The Founders
13. Francis Galton, ‘Hereditary Talent and Character’, Macmillan’s Magazine 12 (1865).
14. Charles Darwin, ‘Natural Selection as Affecting Civilized Nations’, in The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, 2nd rev. edn (1909).
15. David Heron, ‘On the Relation of Fertility in Man to Social Status, and on the Changes in this Relation That Have Taken Place in the Last Fifty Years’, in the series ‘Draper’s Company Research Memoirs: Studies in National Deterioration’ (1906).
16. A. C. Pigou, ‘The Economic Aspect of the Problem’, and Mary Dendy, ‘Can the Feebleminded Be Made Happy in Confinement?’, in [Mrs Walter Slater], The Problem of the Feebleminded: An Abstract of the Report of the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Feebleminded (1909).
17. Eric J. Lidbetter, ‘Some Examples of Poor Law Eugenics’, Eugenics Review 2 (1910–11).
18. Ethel M. Elderton, Amy Barrington, Gertrude Jones, Edith M. M. de G. Lamotte, H. J. Laski and Karl Pearson, On the Correlation of Fertility with Social Value: A Cooperative Study, University of London, Eugenics Laboratory Memoirs 18 (1913), excerpts.
19. Karl Pearson, Social Problems: Their Treatment, Past, Present and Future, lecture delivered at the Galton Laboratory for National Eugenics, 19 March 1912.

Volume 3

Part V: Eugenics in the Unites States: Immigration, Sterilisation and the Law
20. Charles B. Davenport, ‘Migrations and Their Eugenic Significance’, in Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (1911).
21. Harry H. Laughlin, ‘Analysis of America’s Modern Melting Pot’, in Hearings before the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, House of Representatives, 67th Congress, 3rd Session (1922).
22. Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race; or, The Racial Basis of European History (1922), excerpts.
23. Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson, ‘The Need for Negative Eugenics’, ‘Selective Segregation’, and ‘Selective Sterilization’, in Applied Eugenics (1933).
Part VI: Eugenics and Genetics
24. David Heron, Mendelism and the Problem of Mental Defect: A Criticism of Recent American Work (1913), excerpts.
25. Sewall Wright, ‘Correlation and Causation’, Journal of Agricultural Research 20 (1921).
26. Lancelot Hogben, ‘The Serological Date for the Study of Gene Localisation’, in Genetic Principles in Medicine and Social Science (1931).
27. Lionel Penrose, Mental Defect (1933), excerpts.
28. J. B. S. Haldane, ‘Evolution and Our Weak Points’, in Science Advances (1947).
29. J. B. S. Haldane, ‘The Biology of Inequality’, in Heredity and Politics (1938).
30. Letitia Fairfield, The Case against Sterilisation, 2nd edn (1935), excerpts.
31. Fritz Lenz, ‘Methods for the Study of Human Heredity’, in Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer and Fritz Lenz, Human Heredity, translated by Eden and Cedar Paul (1931).
32. R. A. Fisher, ‘The Causes of Human Variability’, ‘The Elimination of Mental Defect’, ‘The Biometrical Study of Heredity’, and ‘Eugenics: Can It Solve the Problem of Decay of Civilizations?’, Eugenics Review 10–18 (1918–26).
33. J. B. S. Haldane, ‘A Provisional Map of a Human Chromosome’, Nature 137 (1936).

Volume 4

Part VII: Eugenik and Rassenhygiene: Eugenics in Germany
34. Ernst Rüdin, ‘Praktische Ergebnisse der psychiatrischen Erblichkeitsforschung’, Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie 24 (1930) [translated by P. Mazumdar].
35. Fritz Lenz, ‘Die Stellung des Nationalsozialismus zur Rassenhygiene’, Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie 25 (1931) [translated by P. Mazumdar].
36. Hermann Muckermann, Eugenik und Katholizismus (1933) [translated and annotated by P. Mazumdar].
37. Pope Pius XI, Casti Connubii [encyclical of 31 December 1930 on Christian marriage].
Part VIII: France: Eugenics and Lamarckism
First International Eugenics Congress, London, 24–30 July 1912
38. H. Hallopeau, ‘Sur la prophylaxie de la syphilis héréditaire et son action eugénique’, in Problems in Eugenics (1912) [translated by the Eugenics Society].
39. Adolphe Pinard, ‘Considérations générales sur “La puériculture avant la procreation”’, in Problems in Eugenics (1912) [translated by the Eugenics Society].
Congress of the Royal Institute of Public Health, Paris, 15–19 May 1913

40. [Anon.], ‘Report on Section on Eugenics and Public Health’, Eugenics Review 5 (1913).
The First World War
41. Lucien March, ‘Some Attempts towards Race Hygiene in France during the War’, Eugenics Review 10 (1918).
42. Charles Robert Richet, ‘Le problème ou le préjugé des races’, Revue générale des sciences pures et appliqués 16 (1906) [translated by P. Mazumdar].
43. Charles Robert Richet, ‘Conclusions générales’, in La sélection humaine (1912–19) [translated by P. Mazumdar].
The Population Problem
44. Hon. H. Onslow, ‘The French Commission on Depopulation’, Eugenics Review 5 (1913).
45. David V. Glass, ‘Population and Policy in Germany’, ‘Birth-rate in France and Belgium’, and ‘Conclusion’, in The Struggle for Population (1936).
46. Alexis Carrel, ‘The Remaking of Man’, in Man the Unknown (1938).

Volume 5

Part IX: Eugenics and Genetics in the Soviet Union
47. G. K. Batkis, ‘Evgenika’, in Bol’shaia sovetskaia entsiklopediia 23 (1931).
48. J. B. S. Haldane, ‘Vavilov’, and ‘Genetics in the Soviet Union’, in Science Advances (1947).
49. Raissa L. Berg, ‘The Negative Equivalent of Fearlessness’, ‘The Unvanquished’, and ‘Vanished Victors’, in Sukhovei Vospominiania Genetika (1983) [translated by David Lowe as Acquired Traits: Memoirs of a Geneticist from the Soviet Union (1988)].
The Lysenko Controversy: Contemporary Voices
50. Trofim Denisovitch Lysenko, ‘The Situation in the Science of Biology’, in Soviet Biology: Report to the Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences (1948).
51. P. S. Hudson and R. H. Richens, ‘The Evidence’, ‘The Interpretation’, and ‘Anti-Mendelism’, in The New Genetics in the Soviet Union (1946).
Part X: South America: Eugenics, Puériculture and Racelessness
On Puériculture and Women
52. Domingo F. Ramos, ‘Homiculture in Its Relations to Eugenics in Cuba’, in Eugenics in Race and State: Scientific Papers of the Second International Congress of Eugenics, New York, 1921 (1923).
53. Renato Ferraz Kehl, ‘Eugenics Abroad, III: In Brazil’, Eugenics Review 23 (1931–2).
On Race
54. Gilberto Freyre, ‘Social Life in Brazil in the Middle of the 19th Century’ [1922], in The Hispano-American Review: Readings in Latin-American History, Vol. 2 (1966).

Volume 6

Part XI: Eugenics in Canada: ‘Our Own Master Race’
The Advocates
55. Helen MacMurchy, ‘The History of the Movement’, ‘Sterilization?’, and ‘Results of Sterilization’, in Sterilization? Birth Control? A Book for Family Welfare and Safety (1934).
56. Madge Thurlow Macklin, ‘The Value of Medical Genetics to the Clinician’, in C. B. Davenport, C. E. Keeler, Maud Slye and Madge T. Macklin, Medical Genetics and Eugenics (1940).
The Church
57. Hervé Blais, ‘L’eugénique devant la pensée catholique’, in Les tendances eugénistes au Canada (1942) [translated by P. Mazumdar].
58. Gaston LaPierre, ‘Les campagnes internationales actuelles d’eugénisme’, Revue trimestrielle canadienne 21 (1935) [translated by P. Mazumdar].
Law Reform
59. Law Reform Commission, ‘Approaches to Sterilization’, Sterilization: Implications for Mentally Retarded and Mentally Ill Persons, Working Paper 24 (1979).
60. Institute of Law Research and Reform, Edmonton, Alberta, Sterilization Decisions: Minors and Mentally Incompetent Adults, Report for Discussion No. 6 (March 1988), excerpts.
61. Institute of Law Research and Reform, Edmonton, Alberta, Competence and Human Reproduction, Report No. 52 (February 1989), excerpts.
62. Anne Marie Owen, ‘Alberta Woman Fights to Control Money—STERILIZATION VICTIM—Government Handles Claimants’ Money That It Awarded’, National Post, 7 April 1999.

 

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優生運動の比較研究から現代を問い直す

松原 洋子(立命館大学大学院先端総合学術研究科教授)

  優生運動は、人間の「生まれながらの性質」に着目して、社会変革や社会防衛、民族や国家の覇権、 あるいは「良い子」に恵まれた家庭の幸福を目指す、思想運動・政治運動である。19世紀末にイギリスとドイツで同時発生的に出現した優生学は、 20世紀初頭に知識人や中産階級市民の支持を得て、ヨーロッパ、北米のみならず、ロシア(ソ連)、南米、アジアに至るまで波及した。また、女性が積極的に 参加したことも、優生運動の特徴であった。
  エキセントリックな差別論や擬似科学が優生学の象徴だとする見方は、すでに過去のものである。1970年代以降進展した優生学史研究は、 当時第一線で活躍していた様々な政治的信条を持つ知識人、科学者、政治家、社会運動家たちが、それぞれの立場で優生学に注目し、優生運動を生真面目に推進する 姿を描いてきた。また、優生学といえば強硬な遺伝決定論、あからさまな人種差別、「劣っている」とされた人々への断種の強制、国家的な優生政策などが連想されるが、 それと並行して環境要因を重視し、優生学的行動の自発性を尊重する論調もまた、優生学支持者に根強く存在していた。そこでは、生殖への人為的介入による人類改良を 目指すという共通性をもちながらも、意見の対立や非難の応酬があった。1980年代以降は、優生運動の担い手や地域による、優生思想の多様性と複雑性が比較研究を 通して注目されている。
  本資料集は、イギリス優生学史研究で知られる医学史家マツムダーが、優生学史の最新の研究動向を踏まえた編集方針のもとに、膨大な関連文献から 資料を精選したアンソロジーである。組織的な優生運動の最盛期であった20世紀前半を中心に、アジア以外の主要地域における代表的な論説が取り上げられており、 全て英語で読めるようになっている。優生学の土台となったノルダウの退化論にはじまり、貧困と社会病理・「優れた階層」の少子化問題・移民制限などを優生学から論じたもの 、遺伝学者や精神医学者による品種改良や遺伝理論、人類遺伝学をめぐる議論、左翼的遺伝学者による優生学批判、優生学批判の教皇の回勅などが 採録・抜粋されている。また、ソ連のルイセンコ論争、フランスの環境要因重視の産科医の育児論、ブラジルの人種混交の肯定、カナダの強制断種に関する1980年代の 報告書等など、地域の特性を知ることができる資料が魅力的である。
  本資料を通じて、われわれは当時の人々が「優生学」を手がかりに問題解決に格闘した、多様な思考の道筋をたどることができる。 そして、彼らの課題であった移民・少子化・貧困などの諸問題へ取り組み、病気・障害の発生予防、科学啓蒙と科学の応用による社会改良などは、 現代の課題でもあり、その理解や解法の根底に優生運動と通底する要素が確かに存在することを見出すのである。優生学という問題系は過去の遺物ではない。 優生学の何が問題で、なにを克服すべきなのか、まだ模索は続いている。